Document


TIMELINE DESIGN

NEW AND CREATIVE

1881

He was born in 1881 (probably in the spring) in Salonica, then an Ottoman city, now inGreece. His father Ali Riza, a customs official turned lumber merchant, died when Mustafawas still a boy. His mother Zubeyde, adevout and strong-willed woman, raised him and his sister.

1893

First enrolled in a traditionalreligious school, he soon switched to a modern school. In 1893, he entered a military highschool where his mathematics teacher gave him the second name Kemal (meaning perfection)in recognition of young Mustafa’s superior achievement.

1905

In 1905, Mustafa Kemal graduated from the War Academy in Istanbul with the rank of Staff Captain. Posted in Damascus, he started with several colleagues, a clandestinesociety called “Homeland and Freedom” to fight against the Sultan’sdespotism.

1908

In 1908 he helped the group of officers who toppled the Sultan. Mustafa Kemal’scareer flourished as he won his heroism in the far corners of the Ottoman Empire,including Albania and Tripoli. He also briefly served as a staff officer in Salonica andIstanbul and as a military attache in Sofia.

1915

In 1915, when Dardanelles campaign was launched, Colonel Mustafa Kemal became anational hero by winning successive victories and finally repelling the invaders.

1916

Promotedto general in 1916, at age 35, he liberated two major provinces in eastern Turkey thatyear. In the next two years, he served as commander of several Ottoman armies inPalestine, Aleppo, and elsewhere, achieving another major victory by stopping the enemyadvance at Aleppo.

1919

On May 19, 1919, Mustafa Kemal Pasha landed in the Black Sea port of Samsun to startthe War of Independence. In defiance of the Sultan’s government, he rallied a liberationarmy in Anatolia and convened the Congress of Erzurum and Sivas which established thebasis for the new national effort under his leadership.

1920

On April 23, 1920, the GrandNational Assembly was inaugurated. Mustafa Kemal Pasha was elected to its Presidency.
Fighting on many fronts, he led his forces to victory against rebels and invadingarmies. Following the Turkish triumph at the two major battles at Inonu in Western Turkey,the Grand National Assembly conferred on Mustafa Kemal Pasha the title ofCommander-in-Chief with the rank of Marshal.

1922

At the end of August 1922, the Turkish armieswon their ultimate victory. Within a few weeks, the Turkish mainland was completelyliberated, the armistice signed, and the rule of the Ottoman dynasty abolished